More than 250,000 slaves and free blacks fought for the Union during the Civil War. If they applied for a pension, you can find their date of birth, place of birth, marriage records, and the names of their parents and children

The 1910 census asked whether a person was a veteran of the Union Army (UA) Navy (UN), or the Confederate Army (CA) or Navy (CN)

Do not assume that all Southerners fought for the south or that all confederate soldiers were white

The federal government did not pay pensions to Confederate veterans or their families, but many southern states did. These records are normally in the state archives

Following the Civil War many Southerners fled to Brazil, which still allowed slavery. The town of Americana (Vila dos Americanos) is know for its Confederate roots

The Library of Congress has papers from the American Colonization Society where thousands of black americans colonized Liberia, Africa

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